Counselling usually involves the counsellor and client sitting together once a week to talk about whatever is troubling the client. The counsellor will help the client to work out what path will be most helpful for them. This is done through listening, reflecting back what seems to be going on for the client and noticing and drawing the client's attention to connections. I predominantly use a psychodynamic approach which simply means links are sometimes identified between the present and what the client has told the counsellor about their past.
The counsellor is able to notice and point out what is going on unconsciously for the client to help enlighten their situation. For example, relationship patterns often get repeated down the generations; this may be something the client is aware of or it may be happening at an unconscious level.
At the heart of counselling is the relationship between the client and the counsellor and it is important that the client feels safe about themselves and the confidentiality of what they talk about with the counsellor. Counsellors are not there to judge but to try their best to understand what the client is feeling so they can help them to an improved understanding of themselves and an ability to live their life in the best way possible. In my view it is never too late to have counselling.